E kore au e ngaro - te käkano i ruia mai i Rangiätea

Updates to Te Papakupu o te Tai Tokerau
~ Taitokerau Mäori Dictionary

Ko te reo te mauri o te mana Maori.


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Te kara o Raiatea - arä, o Rangiatea, te pärekereke o te reo Mäori


Tukua mai äu kupu

ki a

kupu kei temarareo.org

The University of Auckland




Te Papakupu o te Tai Tokerau ~
2004-9 Revised Edition

Te kōrero o te wā
~ Notes and news

As of January 8, 2016

We still have no search engine for the dictionary, but are planning to do something about it in this year of the monkey! Meanwhile, 56 terms, mostly relating to the nights and days of the lunar calendar, have been added or revised and augmented, along with a few links to further information about certain plant names included on the Mara Reo web site. More of these will be added, as time permits!

As of April 4, 2014

Unfortunately, the plug has been pulled on our search facility. The company that provided ATOMZ, the facility we used, was acquired by Adobe some months ago, and they have decided simply to discontinue this facility -- not part of their core business and not interested in selling it off to anyone else. Since this site is unfunded, we will have to wait until we can find a suitable alternative free search engine before we can reinstate this service. This will make the dictionary a little more difficult to navigate, but still slightly easier than a similar printed book would be.

As of May 8, 2009

New words have been added and further revisions have been made over the last two years as the opportunity has arisen, but progress has necessarily been slow. Nevertheless over the first three months of 2009 the dictionary has had 42,491 "hits" and 2375 searches were made, for example, compared with 21,266 hits (2,506 searches) in the same period in 2006. There are now about 4,800 entries in the Taitokerau Dictionary proper. On 24 April the search engine scaned the 92 web pages (including the "Te Wahapu" database) and indexed 539,077 words. Over the last few days of April 2009 there was a mini "great leap forward", with about 50 words identified in the Williams Dictionary as from Ngapuhi or Te Rarawa, but not already in the dictionary, added, along with about a dozen new hapü names from the 1908 and 1918 electoral rolls (completing those for the letter "R"). This has continued in May, with hapü names and other new entries included in the pages for the letters H, K and M, and a start made on the hapü names for the Letter "T".

An important note about hapū names

The early twientieth century electoral rolls are a rich source of information for hapū names, and we have incorporated the information from these into the dictionary over the years . However in government records from the late 19th until the mid-twentieth century only four iwi were recognized: Ngati Whatua, Ngapuhi, Te Rarawa and Te Aupouri. Members of other groups such as Ngati Wai, Ngati Kahu (until the late 1920s), Ngai Takoto, Ngapuhi & Ngati Kahu ki Whaingaroa, and Ngati Kuri, all of which are now recognized as independent iwi by government agencies such as the Fisheries Commission, along with Te Roroa, Ngati Hine, Te Kawerau, Te Uri o Hau and Ngati Whatua ki Orakei, whose independence has also been reasserted in recent years, were therefore grouped in electoral rolls and other official documents under one of the four major iwi headings. Furthermore, the rolls tend to record where people voted or happened to be living at the time of the election, rather than where their hapü papakainga may have been.

When we first started transcribing this information, we sometimes took the official information at face value, and recorded a hapū as affiliated with a certain iwi and based at a certain location if most of the people using that name were recorded as being from a certain iwi and living at a particular place. As we became more suspicious of these official classifications, we simply recorded the names without mentioning the iwi classification, and noted where most of the people using that name voted in the 1908 and/or 1918 parliamentary elections. The most recent entries include both the officially ascribed iwi names, and also list all the places where the people voted and how many of them voted there. It is important to remember to read all these entries as indicating that "According to the official records, people voting or living at the time at this place who were listed under this iwi name used this hapū name"; only the people themselves would know whether the official designation was accurate.

There is also no easy way of knowing whether some hapū listed under several different iwi headings are separate groups. It seems fairly clear that often people adopted the dominant iwi of the area they were living in as the "iwi" heading, but retained the name of their hapü even when this might have neen generally aligned with another larger group.However in other cases it is impossible to make such a judgement on the basis of the official records. For example, there are quite large numbers of “Ngati Kuri” listed under Te Aupouri (36), Te Rarawa (52) and Ngapuhi (50) in 1908 and 1918. Those grouped under Te Aupouri would certainly be now regarded as members of the Ngati Kurï iwi, with possibly a different hapü name. However there is very little overlap in the lists, so in the dictionary the three groupings of “Ngati Kuri” in the electoral rolls are recorded for the moment as three separate entities. We would really appreciate hearing from people who belong to this and other iwi and hapū whose names are recorded here (and from hapū that are not listed), so the information in the dictionary can be made more accurate and interesting.

In the most recent entries (from the end of April 2009 -- mostly on pages for the letters "K", "M", "R" and "T") all the voting or residential locations included in the rolls have been noted. This ensures that the names of a large number of Taitokerau localities appear somewhere in the dictionary, even though we have not yet been able to make separate entries for them.

(To read "older news", just continue on down the page.)

Click on the link below, or the flag of Raiatea on the panel at the left, to go to the dictionary. Please do this only if you are willing to abide by the rules -- (a) no copying of the files, and (b) no commercial use of the information they contain!

Puta atu ki te papakupu ~ Go on to the dictionary
(The dictionary will open in a separate window so you can refer to it while you visit other pages on the web, or read more of this one, if you want to.)


As of October 24, 2006

There has been a substantial revision of on-line files for all letters, and some additions to the small collection of "kupu whakaata" (illustrated entries). Needless to say, there is, as always, a lot more work to do on each of them. As well as the inclusion of a large amount of new material, the files for most of these letters are now spread over several pages, for easier access. There is now roughly one separate web page for the equivalent of 10 A4 printed pages -- some of the old web pages contained the text of as many as 25 or 30 A4 pages. Between April and December 2005 new material was added to the "Kupu Täpiri" page, but in the alphabetical pages only those for E and P were amended directly.

However, the main database incorporates a lot of new material, and all the on-line pages have now been revised to bring them up to date as of February or March 2006. More revisions and updates have been made in June and October. Over the last two years we have incorporated hapü names drawn from the lists of voters in the 1908 and 1918 General Elections, together with an indication of where substantial numbers of these people cast their votes. We have completed these entries, as far as the names and polling places go, for letters A, I, NG, P, U, W, and WH. There are no hapü names in these records with initial E or N. This leaves us with letters H, K, M, O, R and T, to complete. All of these now have a few hapü names included on line (either in the alphabetical files or the Kupu Hou file) [H and O were also completed by the end of 2006], but there are dozens more to add. If members of any of these hapü would like more information about one of them to appear in Te Papakupu, we would be happy to expand the entry to include that. In the mean time, about 100 new "encyclopaedic entries" on customary concepts have been completed and included in the on-line pages. We have also done quite a bit of work on revising the entries on prepositions, definitives and other "grammatical" words -- again, more work to be done, but we are making progress. As always, ka tata mate, e roa taihoa -- otirä, e ora tonu ana mätou ko te papakupu!

February 1 - April 15, 2005

On February 2 a new on-line file was added, including all additions and amendments made to the dictionary since the alphabetical files were last updated. As these files are updated, the duplicate material will be removed from the täpiri (supplementary) file, but in the meantime it is accessible on the web in this way. You can look at the file directly through the papakupu alphabetical menu bar, and its contents are indexed by the search engine. New material has been added to it on February 13, 15, 18 and 19 and April 15 (including about 25 new encyclopaedic entries or supplements to existing entries).

January 2005


Up to the end of January [2005], there had been 239 searches of the dictionary, 157 for Maori words and 82 for English words and phrases.

A section on "How you can help" has been added to the General Background Information page, a link to the search information file has been added to the Pänui page, and information about encyclopaedic entries has been added to both those pages. The search information page also has a note on searching for English words, and a link to enable people to download Maori fonts and configure their computers to recognize and print macrons.

January 8, 2005 was the first day that these pages became open to anyone with an interest in Te Reo o Te Taitokerau. There is still plenty of work to do, but, looking back, a lot has been accomplished over the last year in which work on the project has been entirely voluntary. Nga mihi maioha ki te hunga äwhina.

To the end of 2004

By the end of 2004, all the data files had been reformatted and augmented, and further additions were made to M, P, R, W, and WH in the first few days of January.
T and E have been re-checked aginst headwords in 2003 database.
E includes all words with the inital letters E and Ë in the entire database as at 30 November 2004 including example sentences and all additional material incorporated to that date.

K, M, WH, P and T have been reformatted into multiple pages for easier access.

A search programme has been successfully tested and is now accessible through the dictionary index page. This also links in to the Te Wahapü database which contains over 20,000 references.

To go to the dictionary, click on the link below, or the flag of Raiatea near the top of the panel at the left. Please do this only if you are willing to abide by the rules -- (a) no copying of the files, and (b) no commercial use of the information they contain!

Puta atu ki te papakupu ~ Go on to the dictionary
(The dictionary will open in a separate window so you can refer to it while you visit other pages on the web, if you want to.)

"E kore au e ngaro, e kore au e ngaro, he harakeke tongai nui nō roto nō Mangamuka".

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